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      和珅貪污了多少錢?,乾隆為什么不殺和珅

      時間:2015-12-15 15:09來源:未知 作者:admin 點擊:
      清朝歷史故事:乾隆年間的以貪養忠

      乾隆皇帝簡介

      清高宗愛新覺羅·弘歷(1711-1799年),清朝第六位皇帝,定都北京后第四位皇帝。年號乾隆,寓意“天道昌隆”。25歲登基,在位六十年,退位后當了三年太上皇,實際掌握最高權力長達六十三年零四個月,是中國歷史上執政時間最長、年壽最高的皇帝。乾隆帝在位期間平定大小和卓叛亂、鞏固多民族國家的發展,六次下江南,文治武功兼修。并且當時文化、經濟、手工業都是極盛時代,他在發展清朝康乾盛世局面作出了重要貢獻,確為一代有為之君。廟號高宗,謚號法天隆運至誠先覺體元立極敷文奮武欽明孝慈神圣純皇帝。葬于清東陵裕陵。

      貪官和珅簡介:

      和珅(音:hé shēn)(1750年5月28日—1799年2月22日,即乾隆十五年——嘉慶四年正月十八日),原名善保,字致齋,鈕祜祿氏,滿洲正紅旗二甲喇人。曾兼任多職,封一等忠襄公,任首席大學士、領班軍機大臣,兼管吏部、戶部、刑部、理藩院、戶部三庫,還兼任翰林院掌院學士、《四庫全書》總裁官、領侍衛內大臣、步軍統領等等要職,為皇上寵信之極,官階之高,管事之廣,兼職之多,權勢之大,清朝罕有。他還是皇上的親家翁,其子豐紳殷德被指定為皇上最寵愛的十公主之額駙。后被嘉慶皇帝賜死。

      乾隆年間的以貪養忠

      乾隆朝最大的貪官和珅只活了四十九歲,卻受到愛新覺羅·弘歷無以復加的寵信,不僅位極人臣,而且富可敵國。和珅本是弘歷的娘家人,他們親上加親,還結為親家翁,其子豐紳殷德(乾隆賜名)被指定為皇室最嬌貴的十公主(固倫和孝公主)的額駙。按理說,和珅俸祿豐厚,不用起任何貪心,也能過得倍兒滋潤,為何他還要以堅實的步伐向全國首貪的光榮目標奮勇邁進?若單純以“欲壑難填”和“貪心不足蛇吞象”來解題,就未免失之隔膜了。

        我們不妨先站在乾隆皇帝弘歷的角度去考慮。偌大的清王朝,GDP全球第一,不差錢啊,讓和珅撐死了貪,也不會影響他老人家的幸福指數。他要豢養一個忠心無貳、才干第一的大奴才,這點代價就算高吧,也絕對值當。他孤獨啊,多疑啊,紀曉嵐能陪他吟詩,劉墉能為他辦事,固然不錯,但只有和珅能讓他天天晚上睡個囫圇覺。弘歷不怕和珅貪財好貨,就怕他另有圖謀,覬覦至尊權杖,像先朝的大臣年羹堯那樣有壯志鴻猷。他摸得很準,和珅缺乏政治野心,這就好,“我讓你位極人臣,坐在金山銀山上歡喜,再把我的掌上明珠十公主許配給你兒子,這下你要富貴有富貴,要風光有風光,諒你也不敢更進半步,去冒誅滅九族的風險了”。這個心理上的分析應該是靠譜的。

        我們再站在和珅的角度去考慮。乾隆多疑善猜,是個聰明而又殘忍的主子,做奴才的最知“伴君如伴虎”的厲害,要讓主子安心放心,做奴才的還真別裝廉潔裝高尚,貪取黃白之物算什么?這個人性的弱點不足為奇。他已攀升到寶塔尖兒上,不貪污受賄就會令主子犯嘀咕:這小子要干嗎?莫非還有什么別的盤算?一旦皇上起了疑心,那就糟糕透頂了。只有招權納賄,把案底做好擺在那兒,主子有把柄隨時可抓,才會放心大膽讓臣子居高位享厚祿而不忌。歷史提供了不少借鑒。秦國大將王翦統領數十萬大軍去攻打楚國,行軍到半途,就一而再、再而三地派人回咸陽找嬴政索要封賞。老將軍這么啰唣干嗎呢?他就是要借此表示自己別無狼子野心,打完勝仗后,能回國做個富家翁于愿足矣。嬴政見王翦反復派人來索求封賞,不僅不惱不煩,而且寬心大笑,一一恩準。這個學問可不淺顯!和珅官職愈大,貪興愈重,想剎車都剎不住,他明知這一招鮮未必能保得了自家福祿長遠不敗,但他別無選擇。和珅要平衡風險和利益,除了大貪特貪,竟找不到別的法門。在古代官場上,某巨頭要是轟然倒下了,那肯定是由于政治立場造成的,可不能全賴在貪污受賄這檔子糗事上。

        乾隆皇帝弘歷以貪養忠,整出的案例堪稱經典。后半生,他得心力于和珅的地方很多,得樂趣于和珅的時候更多。他豢養天字第一號的碩鼠,可謂毫無風險,金山銀山畢竟跑不掉,始終都在那兒碼著垛著,和珅是國內一流的管理人才,由他經營這些財富,本息相當可觀。乾隆皇帝歸山晏駕了,和珅的好日子這才走到了盡頭。“和珅倒,嘉慶飽。”你看到了吧,和珅的巨額財富瞬間易主,都成了愛新覺羅·颙琰的囊中之物。弘歷的高明至此顯露無遺,他讓一個忠誠不貳的大奴才死心塌地干了半輩子,到頭來,繼位的十五阿哥只需頒下一道圣旨,那個大禮包就輕松到家了。

        以貪養忠是封建專制帝王的馭臣術,但這個活計不宜明說,全靠聰明的臣子去私底下悉心揣摩。古往今來總有人讀史不化,想不通中國歷史上的清官為何少到屈指可數的地步。殊不知,大官馭小官,小官馭小吏,莫不在此四字范圍內用盡心思,下足工夫。

        明朝頭號清官海瑞在市集上花錢割兩斤豬肉給老母親打牙祭,準定會成為當地當日的轟動新聞。這樣的清官卻被視為癲子和怪胎。海瑞能像和珅那樣位極人臣嗎?皇帝碰上這號清官,雖然也會言不由衷地表彰一番,但他本心里更喜歡也更信任的仍是貪官污吏。為什么?因為清官的道德優越感會使之變得憤激,由于他們潔身自好,也很難同流合污,貪官則恰恰相反,他的犯罪感越大,忠誠度就會越高。誠然,世間唯有絕對的權力、絕對的利益能夠將個人和體制牢牢地捆綁在一起。

      和珅貪污了多少錢?
      據《清朝野史大觀·和珅家財》等野史記載,和珅總財產是“二十億兩有奇政府歲入七千萬,而和珅以二十年之閣臣,其所蓄當一國二十年歲入而強”。薛福成在《庸庵筆記》中提供的數額是二億三千萬兩。副都統薩彬圖力陳“和珅家產甚多,斷不止此查出之數”,要求嚴刑審訊“和珅家掌管金銀內賬使女四人”,對和宅院附近進行挖掘,尋找“窖埋金銀”以及查清和家帳本和各大銀號,以求徹底查清。他的府邸裝潢勝似皇家園囿,其華貴為其他大臣府邸所不及。和珅“跌倒”后,他的府邸被轉賜給恭親王,成為人們現在所熟悉的恭王府。   
      由于清朝與現代的時間最接近,因此和珅成為中國史上最著名的貪官,乾隆五十五年至六十年的稅收被和珅貪掉了一半;2001年,入選《亞洲華爾街日報》世界級富翁行列。

      乾隆為什么不殺和珅

      首先,和珅他是個3品的宮廷侍衛出生,他最輝煌的時候--一人身兼6個還是9個重要大臣職務,這個就說明了他還是有點本事的。一人擔當那么多的職務,但是絲毫沒有凌亂,這份駕馭的能力就讓值得讓人欽佩了。

      而且歷史上的和珅和會巴結人,他會為了討好皇帝模仿皇帝的字體,會揣測皇帝的心意,這點也是他成功的原因。我記得最清楚的是,和珅無論在何時,哪怕到他后來成了軍機大臣,每每皇帝要吐痰時,他都恭恭敬敬的去拿痰盂去伺候皇帝吐痰,這份巴結的功力可不是一般的高啊!

      所以,一個有才能,而且又會體貼人的奴才,只是貪過了點。所以乾隆就很聰明的做了把好人,把和珅留給他兒子去搞。乾隆怎么會不知道和珅貪呢?他心里最為清楚不過了。所以他兒子上臺了之后,沒多久就把和珅的全家給辦了。所以歷史上的“和珅跌倒,嘉慶吃飽”就是這個意思。。

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